Pigmentation and freckles are patches of skin that advance to a darker colour, generating an uneven skin tone. Hyper-pigmentation is the excessive change in pigmentation in the skin, which can leave dark spots or larger areas of pigmented skin.
There are several different types of Hyperpigmentation that can occur. Post Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation (PIH) is pigment that has occurred due to skin trauma, and is common in darker skin types or those that suffer with acne. Sun spots occur due to frequent UV exposure over prolonged time. Finally, Hormonal pigmentation such as Melasma, occurs due to hormonal changes in the body and is commonly associated with pregnancy.